VOK COLLECTION, Selection II
Saturday 12. March 2016 at 3 p.m.
Balikesir Kilim FragmentAdd to wishlist
VOK Collection, Anatolia 55
- North West Anatolia
- 213 x 137 cm
- early 19th century
- 1,800 - 2,200
Four spikes tipped with diamonds protrude from a deep blue hexagon. The hexagon encloses a central closed hook shape surrounded by two hooked diamonds drawn in red and white. This powerful solitary motif constitutes the central point of a plain blood red field. Horizontal stripes in blue-black, blue, red and green constitute the finish at both ends. The kilim was woven without any lateral borders. – This heavily fragmented example from the Balikesir region in north western Anatolia was probably made by local Yagcibedir nomads. Very finely woven from the best wool and in rich luminous colours, it is probably one of the oldest surviving examples of this type. In April 1997, AMS radiocarbon dating was undertaken at the ETH laboratory in Zurich. The time spans determined were AD 1671 - 1783 (44.3%) and AD 1794 - 1899 (38.1%), resulting in an age of 145 years +/- 45 years. This means that the kilim may now be some 200 years old, an assumption supported by the style of drawing and high quality. – Hirsch writes that weavings of this kind served as eating cloths. – Obvious signs of age and wear. Mounted onto canvas.
PETSOPOULOS, YANNI, 100 Kelims. Meisterwerke aus Anatolien. Munich 1991, no. 12 *** HASSON, RACHEL, Woven with Love. Kilims From Anatolia. The Georg and Birgit Rabe Collection, Berlin. Jerusalem 2007, pl. p. 44 *** KELIM-CONNECTION AACHEN (publ.), Kelim: Textile Kunst aus Anatolien. Aachen 2002, pl. 3
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 55
Ordu Niche KilimAdd to wishlist
VOK Collection, Anatolia 5
- North East Anatolia, Black Sea Coast
- 176 x 154 cm
- dated 1288 AH = 1871 AD
- 9,000 - 12,000
Petsopoulos ascribes the three niche kilims from this group published by him to the surroundings of Bayburt. They share common features such as the composition, palette and designs, although the latter are arranged in distinctly different ways in each piece. All the items are dated. In the Vok niche kilim, the Islamic date "in the year 1288" appears at the top of the steep stepped arch. The inner sides of the green-ground mihrab are decorated with red or brown hooks. A red amphora enclosing a water jug is placed on the central axis. From the amphora, a geometric, abstract flowering tree ascends towards the top of the arch. The stars seen in the red section above the mihrab follow the shape of the arch, moving the top of the mihrab upwards like soundwaves. In the wide golden yellow border, the motifs surrounded by lattice shapes – characteristic of the group – are reminiscent of candelabra. They are delicately drawn and woven in a number of colour variations. Arranged vertically and horizontally in the brown-ground outer border, the large shield forms enclosing plants are also encountered in Erzerum kilims. The very beautiful colours and spacious composition make this niche kilim one of the most impressive examples of the group. – Hirsch mentions the coastal town of Ordu on the Black Sea as the provenance. The kilim was probably used as a hanging to cover a wall niche, thus it is not a prayer rug. – Several rewoven sections, in particular along the border. Good overall condition, including the original cotton warp ends which have been tied off into a net.
PETSOPOULOS, YANNI, Der Kelim. Ein Handbuch. Munich 1980, nos. 260 ff. *** ESKENAZI, JOHN J. (publ.), Kilim. Milan 1980, no. 10
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 5
Manisa KilimAdd to wishlist
VOK Collection, Anatolia 68
- West Anatolia
- 370 x 135 cm
- ca. 1800
- 3,500 - 4,500
This large kilim with a blue field, a red-ground border and three-panel elems belongs to a specific group of only a few existing examples. Four huge main designs composed of a complex system of diamonds and powerful double hooks are arranged vertically to fill the whole of the narrow indigo field, which shows a greenish abrash at the top. Very impressive in terms of graphic effect, the striking appearance of the design is further enhanced by the use of white cotton for the hooks and the zip-fastener style inner outline of the field. Each of the spaces between the primary motifs contains two small hexagons. The same hexagons, widely spaced, provide the border decoration. In 2009 Hirsch wrote the following on the subject of this iconography: "Das Hauptmotiv entspricht vorgeschichtlichen, vorderasiatischen Darstellungen einer Göttin, flankiert von Leoparden oder Löwen (The main motif corresponds to prehistoric Near Eastern representations of a goddess, flanked by leopards or lions)" (cat. Wolff-Diepenbrock, p. 30). – The broad similarities in format, drawing and palette are evidence that the kilims in this small group share a common origin in a closely defined area, possibly the same village. Opinions are divided with regard to its geographic location. In 1997 Hirsch attributed the Vok example to the village of Altinakin near Obruk in Central Anatolia. The pieces published by Davies (1983), Sailer (1984), Petsopoulos (1991) and in the book by the Kelim-Connection (2002) are also assigned to the Konya region. Hirsch later revised his opinion, stating in 2009 that the kilim in the Wolff-Diepenbrock Collection was a village rug made in the West Anatolian province of Manisa. Konzett held the same view regarding an example published by him as early as 1991. – Fragmented; the right-hand border is missing, the left-hand border is incomplete in places. Signs of age and wear. Mounted onto canvas.
PETSOPOULOS, YANNI, 100 Kelims. Meisterwerke aus Anatolien. Munich 1991, nos. 57 and 58 *** DAVIES, PETER, The Tribal Eye. Antique Kilims of Anatolia. New York 1993, pl. 33 *** KELIM-CONNECTION AACHEN (publ.), Kelim: Textile Kunst aus Anatolien. Aachen 2002, pl. 19 *** PLOIER, HELMUT, Gewebte Poesie. Frühe anatolische Kelims. Sammlung Konzett. Graz 1991, no. 59 *** GALERIE SAILER (publ.), Aus der Welt des Kelim. Salzburg 1984, no. 34
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 68
Isparta KilimAdd to wishlist
VOK Collection, Anatolia 74
- western Central Anatolia
- 376 x 154 cm
- 18th century
- 3,500 - 4,500
The white field of this extremely rare, single-panel kilim is divided into three rectangles of equal size and design, separated by bars interspersed between them. The rectangles contain huge incised hexagons of varying ground colour that each enclose a pair of large diamonds. S-shaped motifs that may constitute abstract animals are distributed around them. Across the white surface, the striking parmakli outlines of the primary designs correspond to the analogous contours of the lateral borders, where the parmakli devices protrude inwards and outwards and are linked to form a band. The three-panel elems are embellished with serrated diamonds, crosses and interlocked stepped chevrons. The spacious composition using boldly drawn designs and brilliant colours suggests an early date. Hirsch writes that he is not aware of any other examples in this group. – Reduced upper elem, several missing sections, damaged sides.
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 74
Cappadocian KilimAdd to wishlist
VOK Collection, Anatolia 61
- Central Anatolia, Nevsehir province
- 350 x 149 cm
- 18th century
- 9,000 - 12,000
The red field of this large Cappadocian kilim is surrounded by wide lateral borders of offset yellow and red parmakli designs and long colourful elems at both ends. Balanced and compact in composition and woven in mellow harmonious colours, this kilim is one of the most beautiful Anatolian examples in the Vok Collection by Western viewers’ aesthetic standards. However, we must also bear in mind its original significance as a cult object. The Anatolian weaver was chiefly concerned with creating a textile picture of religious and symbolic meaning. In the process, she employed the formal concepts and designs familiar to her from the established tradition of her own community. Hirsch reports that young women would frequently weave funeral kilims at a very young age, which later served as coffin covers and were donated to the local mosque after the event (Anatolia, p. 9). Cult kilims of this kind were not intended for everyday use, but only adorned the walls on special occasions. According to Hirsch, the five large hexagons with powerful double hooks stacked vertically along the central axis constitute birth symbols. The origins of this motif probably date back as far as the Anatolian Neolithic period; it symbolises the continuation of life beyond death. – Only a very few comparative examples have been published. Konzett presents a yellow-ground example with eight hexagons in a composition of double rows and a brown parmakli border. The example in the Wolff-Diepenbrock Collection (first illustrated by Petsopoulos and later in the catalogue of the Wolff-Diepenbrock Collection) is closely related to the Vok kilim in terms of palette. It presents a similar field design of eight hexagons arranged in two rows, but shows a blue parmakli border. Hirsch writes that kilims with yellow parmakli borders like the Vok example were woven in the surroundings of Avanos, a small Cappadocian town in the province of Nevsehir. – Several missing sections and tears, corroded brown; the sides and corners are partially incomplete. Mounted onto canvas.
PLOIER, HELMUT, Gewebte Poesie. Frühe anatolische Kelims. Sammlung Konzett. Graz 1991, no. 61 *** PETSOPOULOS, YANNI, 100 Kelims. Meisterwerke aus Anatolien. Munich 1991, no. 95 = WOLFF-DIEPENBROCK, JOHANNES (publ.), Eine Sammlung. Textilien aus Anatolien, dem Kaukasus, Persien, Mittelasien, Zentral- und Ostafrika. Cologne 2009, pp. 26-27
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 61
Mut-Ermenek KilimAdd to wishlist
VOK Collection, Anatolia 37
- southern Central Anatolia
- 370 x 159 cm
- 17th – 18th century
- 30,000 - 35,000
From an ethnological point of view, this very old kilim previously published on several occasions is the most important Anatolian example in the Vok Collection. No other surviving kilim shows elibelinde designs drawn in a similarly monumental and authentic style as the offset facing pairs that fill the wide elem bands of this item. The motif can be traced back to ancient history; according to Hirsch, it represents a Neolithic goddess figure. "All Anatolian weavers define this motif as the illustration of a woman", Hirsch writes. – The kilim was woven in the mountainous region of Mut-Ermenek in southern Turkey, the modern-day provinces of Mersin and Karaman. There is evidence that settlements and cities have existed in the region for thousands of years. It is where the Romans recruited their Isaurian elite soldiers. In 1228 the area was conquered by the Rum Seljuks. – In the white field, five rows of three box shapes in green, light red and blue combine into a repeat. The primary motifs enclose hooked hexagons and are decorated in lateral parmakli outlines. Rows of large serrated diamonds are interspersed between them. The light colours and decidedly graphic design of simple compact forms are characteristic features of Mut-Ermenek kilims. The prominent deep aubergine shade seen in this item is a certain indication of an early date. - In April 1997, the Institute for Particle Physics of ETH Zurich conducted AMS radiocarbon dating. The time spans determined were AD 1642 - 1682 (41.3 %) and AD 1747 - 1806 (41.1 %), resulting in an age of 230 years +/- 30 years. This analysis confirms the assumption of a 17th – 18th century date for this kilim based on a stylistic analysis. – Signs of age and wear, several missing sections, damaged sides. Reduced ends. Mounted onto canvas.
MELLAART, JAMES & HIRSCH, UDO & BALPINAR, BELKIS, The Goddess from Anatolia. Adenau 1989, vol. 1, ill. 4, p. 35 *** RAGETH, JÜRG (ed.), Frühe Formen & Farben. Gewebe aus Anatolien. Symposium Basel. Die Ausstellung. Riehen 1991. Vol. 1, die Ausstellung, pl. 4 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 37 *** RAGETH, JÜRG (ed.), Anatolian Kilims & Radiocarbon Dating. A New Approach to Dating Anatolian Kilims. Riehen 1999, pl. 45
VOK Collection, Caucasus – Persia 96
- South West Persia, Fars
- 243 x 147 cm
- ca. 1900
- 2,500 - 3,300
This Qashqa’i kilim of comparatively coarse weave is attributed to the Shekarlu tribe by Sadighi. The diamond lattice design of the field was widespread among the Qashqa’i and Luri tribes of Fars. In this item, the stepped diagonals are pale yellow, occasionally changing to blue. Unlike most kilims of this design type, the distribution of colours in the undecorated diamond compartments does not follow a precise plan. The result appears like a random picture that is not strictly organised, but creates an extremely lively effect. The change in colour seen in the lower section proves that the weaver initially had difficulties with the colour of the ground and the organisation of the design. She solved these by halving the lateral diamonds and separating them from the border by a white band. – Slight signs of age and wear, several stains.
AMPE, PATRICK & RIE, Textile Art. A personal choice (Kailash Gallery). Antwerp 1994, no. 8
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim and other Flatweaves. (Text by Hamid Sadighi) Munich 1996, no. 96
VOK Collection, Caucasus – Persia 87
- South West Persia, Fars province
- 257 x 155 cm
- 2nd half 19th century
- 3,000 - 3,600
Abrashed in several places, the poppy red field is dominated by a large diamond placed at its centre. It is composed of serrated devices resembling flashes of lightning that combine into seven concentric diamonds by colour change. An inner ring of motifs woven in brilliant white cotton catches the eye. Five stepped polygons are arranged around the central motif like satellites; otherwise the field is undecorated. Originally there were six stepped polygons, however the bottommost motif was not rewoven when a missing section was restored. The inner sides of the field are decorated with a wide design band of halved stepped polygons interlocked by colour change – a protective wall that creates an effective border around the field and carries symbolic meaning. As in most Qashqa’i kilims, the border consists of reciprocal trefoils, most of them drawn on a white cotton ground. The bold designs, balanced composition and appealing palette of colours patinated with age create an archaic appearance in this comparatively coarsely woven kilim. Sadighi attributes it to the Baseri tribe. – One major missing section in the lower finish, several holes (backed with fabric), several worn areas, damaged sides.
GALERIE NEIRIZ (publ.), Kelims der Nomaden und Bauern Persiens. Berlin 1990, ill. 64 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim and other Flatweaves. (Text by Hamid Sadighi) Munich 1996, no. 87
VOK Collection, Caucasus – Persia 82
- South West Persia, Fars province
- 274 x 144 cm
- 2nd half 19th century
- 3,000 - 3,600
A huge shield form with serrated lateral outlines is woven into a light red field. Lacking any contact with the sides, it seems suspended, appearing like a huge window due to the depth effect created by the colours. The undecorated interior is woven in a vivid range of changing shades of green. The kilim is a typical product of the Darreh Shuri Qashqa’i. The weavers of the tribe had a fondness for combining two complementary colours, red and green, and for abstract compositions using large empty spaces. A reciprocal trefoil border including white cotton sections frames the field to good effect. The high density of the weave and the bold design may be indications of an early date. – Obvious signs of age and wear, various brown stains. A missing section along the lower left-hand side, several small holes, somewhat damaged ends.
HERRMANN, EBERHART, Asiatische Teppich- und Textilkunst 4. Munich 1992, no. 75
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim and other Flatweaves. (Text by Hamid Sadighi) Munich 1996, no. 82
VOK Collection, Caucasus – Persia 94
- South West Persia, Fars
- 265 x 156 cm
- late 19th century
- 4,500 - 5,500
The impressive field design of this antique Qashqa’i kilim, attributed to the Imamlu tribe by Sadighi, is composed of ten wide horizontal bands alternating in ground colour. Clusters of narrow dividing stripes are interspersed between them. Each of the wide bands contains six large cruciform devices outlined in contrasting colours. The blue band third from the top shows an additional small cross. The field is surrounded by a double wavy line of stepped forms. Woven in the single weft interlocking technique throughout and thus without slits, the kilim is firm and solid in structure. The symbolic character of the primary motifs, the bold style and remarkably harmonious palette imbue this kilim with a unique appeal. – In his description, Sadighi points out the great importance that nomadic people attached to the cruciform device. It symbolises the four points of the compass and carried a magical aura. – Good condition.
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim and other Flatweaves. (Text by Hamid Sadighi) Munich 1996, no. 94