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Orient Stars 2

Saturday 02. October 2021 at 6 p.m.

98 Lots
  • Niche Rug with Animal Border

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    • Lot51
    • OriginCentral Anatolia
    • Dimensions221 x 135 cm
    • Age1450 - 1500
    • Estimate EUR70,000 - 90,000

    Niche rugs are primarily associated with Moslems and prayer: to be laid on the ground for daily prayers, with the niche pointing towards Mecca. However, not all niche rugs served this important function: some hung over doors to mark entrances and others with very narrow fields and wide borders may have been used as tomb covers. A few Anatolian examples of the latter have survived. - When this rug was made near the end of the 15th century, the Turkic tribe that wove it still retained a full repertoire of symbols – developed over the preceding five centuries – designed to help the soul of the recipient to pass smoothly into the afterlife. This can best be observed in the highly stylised animal confrontations that are clearly seen in the main border. All repeating carpet ornaments are best understood when reduced to the basic elements of the repeat. What looks at first sight like a palmette, when divided into its basic element appears as part of a creature confronting another one with a curling tail. Two other examples with very similar border patterns are known: one in a private collection in Milan, the other once with Christopher Alexander. (MF)

    Extract from OS 2, no. 28. The carpet is discussed in detail and assessed art historically in that publication.


    Mounted on canvas

    Formerly: Garry Muse, Tucson, and The Textile Gallery, London

    Exhibited: Hamburg, Deichtorhallen, 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum, 1993; Metropolitan Museum, New York, 1936-2020 (on loan)


    Published:
    OS 1, no. 199 *** HALI 75, 1994, ill. p. 55; DENNY, WALTER, Behind the Scenes. In: HALI 170, 2011, ill. 4, p. 71 *** OS 2, no. 48

    • Lot52
    • OriginWest Anatolia
    • Dimensions342 x 168 cm
    • Age1500 - 1550
    • Estimate EUR170,000 - 200,000

    The names collectors give to their objects are sometimes based on personal associations. The Kirchheims called this large West Anatolian rug “Red Monolith”, probably because of its red, sparsely decorated central field which is a self-contained composition and largely fills the yellow outer field. It creates the impression of a second carpet having been superimposed on the yellow ground. The central design of a hexagonal medallion and four corner motifs is well-known from many other Anatolian rugs. It belonged to the standard repertoire and was used by the weaver in the proportions she was familiar with. Two triangular hooked forms create a gable with an open top at the ends of the field. A connection between the central design unit and the two far distant gables is established by two cone-shaped motifs outlined with blue hooks that resemble the lamp in the "Bellini" prayer rug, lot 54. They are flanked by two Talish rosettes. The yellow outer field is empty except for small corner motifs and two Talish rosettes. In the wide dark brown border we see a complex vine design and abstract mythical creatures. (DM)

    Detailed discussion and art historical appraisal by MF in OS 2, no. 29


    Mounted on canvas, attached to a wooden frame

    Formerly: Garry Muse, Tucson

    Exhibited: Hamburg, Deichtorhallen, 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum, 1993; New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994–2020 (on loan)


    Published:
    OS 1, no. 197 *** MILLS, JOHN, Love and Understanding. In: HALI ANNUAL,1994, no. 8 *** FRANSES, MICHAEL, Fabulous creatures. In: HALI 206, 2020, no. 1 *** OS 2, no. 29

  • The "Anchor" Carpet

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    • Lot53
    • OriginCentral Anatolia, Karapinar
    • Dimensions334 x 165 cm
    • Age1400 - 1500
    • Estimate EUR120,000 - 150,000

    The name given to this monumental red-ground Karapinar, "Anchor carpet", derives from the powerful anchor forms at each end of the two long poles emanating from the tips of its green hexagonal central medallion. The Kirchheims purchased it from the Salzburg gallery owner Franz Sailer at the Maastricht art fair. Only a small number of large-format Anatolian tribal rugs have survived, and this unique example is one of the best and impressive of its kind. The wide dark brown border featuring abstract mythical beasts belongs to the type called a "fabulous creatures border" by Michael Franses. (DM)

    Detailed discussion and art historical appraisal by MF in OS 2, no. 30


    Mounted on canvas and attached to a wooden frame

    Formerly: Galerie Sailer, Salzburg

    Exhibited: Hamburg, Deichtorhallen, 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum, 1993; New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1994–2020 (on loan)


    Published:
    OS 1, no. 198 *** MILLS, JOHN, Love and Understanding. In: HALI ANNUAL,1994, no. 9 *** FRANSES, MICHAEL, In search of the origins. In: HALI 205, 2020, ill. p. 86 *** FRANSES, MICHAEL, Fabulous creatures. In: HALI 206, 2020, no. 4 *** OS 2, no. 30

  • "Bellini" Prayer Rug

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    • Lot54
    • OriginWest Anatolia
    • Dimensions163 x 132 cm
    • Age1600 - 1650
    • Estimate EUR70,000 - 90,000

    This gorgeous prayer rug featuring a keyhole design belongs to the "Bellini" group. It is missing parts of the border all around as well as the lower end of the field, and a horizontal strip of the field has been reattached at the bottom. However, the viewer’s eye will easily fill in the missing sections. Surmounted by a pointed arch, the mihrab field is red and set against an empty, water blue background, thus enhancing the effect. Its wide green frame curves inwards at the lower end to form the octagonal keyhole that is open at the bottom and closed at the top. A large cone-shaped lamp hangs down from the apex of the arch. Decorated with a yellow tip composed of an arrow, star and crescent, it looks like an Ottoman standard. At the centre of the field, an eight-pointed star medallion is surrounded by four triangles. The wide brown-ground main border featuring abstract animal forms, which is called a "fabulous creatures border" by Michael Franses, only occurs in this "Bellini" niche carpet. (DM)

    Detailed discussion and art historical appraisal by MF in OS 2, no. 31


    Mounted on canvas and attached to a wooden frame

    Formerly: Garry Muse, Tucson, and The Textile Gallery, London

    Exhibited: Hamburg, Deichtorhallen, 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum, 1993


    Published:
    MILLS, JOHN, Carpets in Paintings. In: HALI 58, 1991, no. 26 *** OS 1, no. 189 *** MILLS, JOHN, Love and Understanding. In: HALI ANNUAL, London 1994, no. 5 *** FRANSES, MICHAEL, Fabulous creatures. In: HALI 206, 2020, no. 5 *** OS 2, no. 31

  • Keyhole Rug Fragment

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    • Lot55
    • OriginWest Anatolia
    • Dimensions137 x 76 cm
    • Age1500 - 1550
    • Estimate EUR6,000 - 8,000

    Less than a quarter of the original survives and from what remains it is impossible to determine whether this Keyhole rug originally had a niche at the lower end (type A) or the pattern was mirrored both horizontally and vertically and there was a further keyhole band (type C). The small size of the medallion might well imply that originally there was a niche at the lower end too, an idea that is partially endorsed by comparing it with some related examples. The Orient Stars rug has two primary borders and a narrow outer guard border, which is somewhat unusual for Keyhole rugs. The pattern of the outer primary border evokes two examples of type C1: the Beghian in St. Louis and the Hecksher in San Francisco. (MF)

    Extract from OS 2, no. 32. The carpet is discussed in detail and assessed art historically in that publication.


    Mounted on fabric and attached to a wooden frame

    Formerly: Gary Muse, Tucson and The Textile Gallery, London (1986 - 1992)

    Exhibited: Hamburg, Deichtorhallen,1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum, 1993


    Published:
    OS 1, no. 191 *** OS 2, no. 32

  • Fragment with Double Keyhole Design

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    • Lot56
    • OriginWest Anatolia
    • Dimensions160 x 78 cm
    • Age1500 - 1550
    • Estimate EUR7,000 - 9,000

    The surviving left side of this red-ground carpet retains the corners and remnants of the outer border, allowing us to determine both its original size and design. It belongs to the double keyhole design group and was woven in a rare, almost square format. A small, blue, almost diamond-shaped central medallion with stepped sides is placed in the middle of the field, flanked by four corner motifs, but these open towards the keyholes rather than the rug centre. In the wide blue main border we see two-dimensional abstract animals decorated with curled hooks which alternate between yellow and red, although purple and, at the very top left, light green are also used. (DM)

    Detailed discussion and art historical appraisal by MF in OS 2, no. 33


    Mounted on fabric and attached to a wooden frame

    Formerly: Garry Muse, Tucson, and The Textile Gallery, London

    Exhibited: Hamburg Deichtorhallen 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum 1993


    Published:
    OS 1, no. 190 *** OS 2, no. 33

  • Red-Ground Prayer Rug with Keyhole Design

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    • Lot57
    • OriginCentral Anatolia, Konya
    • Dimensions140 x 115 cm
    • Age1650 - 1700
    • Estimate EUR5,000 - 7,000

    This red-ground rug from the Konya region has a steep stepped arch with a triangular point bearing a double hook. The arch branches out laterally from a green band outlined in white that runs around the whole of the field, opening into an octagonal aperture at the lower end. Known as “keyhole” or “re-entrant” design, this opening has a religious significance. The field design consists of just a few ornaments. A green star with eight arms, each bearing a blossom, lies at the midpoint. Its box-shaped blue centre contains a yellow star. The design of the golden yellow main border – octagons enclosing geometrically stylised rosettes – is simple in concept. This type of prayer rug was widespread and survived virtually unchanged until well into the 19th century. (DM)

    Detailed discussion and art historical appraisal by MF in OS 2, no. 34


    Mounted on canvas

    Formerly: Friedrich Spuhler, Berlin

    Exhibited: Hamburg Deichtorhallen 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum 1993


    Published:
    OS 1, no. 169 *** OS 2, no. 34

  • The "Bellini" Carpet

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    • Lot58
    • OriginCentral Anatolia, Konya
    • Dimensions248 x 148 cm
    • Age1600 - 1650
    • Estimate EUR100,000 - 120,000

    A green shield form with a rectangular centre and a large octagon at each end floats freely in the red field. The central axis is accentuated by three rosettes with wide white outlines. In the yellow border, serrated ornaments are framed cartouche-style by a red geometrical vine. – This fascinating Konya belongs to the group of "keyhole" carpets for which John Mills coined the term "Bellini" type. Two brothers from Venice, Gentile (1429 – 1507) and Giovanni Bellini (1437 – 1516), each depicted a rug with a keyhole motif in one of their paintings, albeit in its original form with the keyhole open at the bottom and closed towards the field. Naming the whole group of rugs with keyhole motifs after them seems somewhat arbitrary, bearing in mind that the motif is also found in pictures by various other painters. The oldest known example with a keyhole motif appears to be the Mamluk prayer rug from Cairo (ca. 1500) in the Berlin museum. As of the early 16th century, prayer rugs with a keyhole motif at the lower end of the field were also woven in the West Anatolian centre of Ushak. The Berlin museum owns two particularly beautiful examples. The Kirchheim rug displays the keyhole in a different context. It has been doubled, rotated by 180 degrees and incorporated into a larger shield-like form. This large motif is often encountered in 19th century Caucasian rugs. – The “Bellini” rug purchased by the Kirchheims from Sailer marked a turning point for the development of the Orient Stars Collection. The carpet opened the door for the couple to the world of historic Anatolian carpets. The great clarity of its layout, the monumental effect of its composition and its wonderful colours made it Waltraut Kirchheim’s favourite piece. (DM)

    Detailed discussion and art historical appraisal by MF in OS 2, no. 35


    Mounted on canvas

    Formerly: Friedrich Spuhler, Berlin; Galerie Sailer, Salzburg

    Exhibited: Hamburg Deichtorhallen 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum 1993


    Literature:
    BESELIN, ANNA, Knots. Art & History. The Berlin Carpet Collection. Berlin 2018, 26, 27, 28

    Published:
    OS 1, no. 159 *** MILLS, JOHN, Love and Understanding. In: HALI ANNUAL, 1994, no. 10 *** FRANSES, MICHAEL, In search of the origins. In: HALI 205, 2020, ill. p. 89 *** OS 2, no. 35

  • "Crivelli" Carpet

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    • Lot59
    • OriginWest Anatolia
    • Dimensions215 x 142 cm
    • Age1500 - 1550
    • Estimate EUR90,000 - 120,000

    When comparing the seven surviving Anatolian Crivelli Star rugs from a purely aesthetic point of view, the Kirchheim-Crivelli has the most perfectly proportioned stars, like the examples in Crivelli’s paintings, whereas on all the others the stars are somewhat squashed. The most similar star is found on the rug discovered by Nejat Diyarbekirli in the New Mosque in Sivrihisar, which had been transferred there from the Old Mosque in around 1918. A second Crivelli Star rug now in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts in Istanbul was also discovered in Sivrihisar, as well as the one with a related pattern. Three out of eight being found in one town might not be a coincidence and could suggest that this pattern was widely used there, although one must be cautious about making such statements based on so small a sample. – The Kirchheim and Sivrihisar rugs both have octagons inside the square that lies at the centre of their Crivelli Stars, each containing a small eight-pointed star and repeated in the hexagons on the main axes; on the Kirchheim these are on a blue ground and on the Sivrihisar the background is aubergine. Both have abstracted animals in the hexagons on the diagonals of the star. On the Kirchheim rug these are deep green birds edged in red on an aubergine ground.

    (MF)

    Extract from OS 2, no. 36. The carpet is discussed in detail and assessed art historically in that publication.


    Mounted on canvas and attached to a wooden frame

    Formerly: Garry Muse, Tucson, and The Textile Gallery, London

    Exhibited: Hamburg, Deichtorhallen, 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum, 1993; Milan, Pinacoteca di Brera, 2010


    Published:
    OS 1, nor. 188 *** HALI 161, 2009, ill. p. 23 *** DAFFRA, EMANUELA (ed.), Crivelli e Brera. Exhibition catalogue. Milan 2010, p. 74, 75 *** OS 2, no. 36

  • "Crivelli Star" Carpet

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    • Lot60
    • OriginWest Anatolia
    • Dimensions150 x 150 cm
    • Age1600 - 1650
    • Estimate EUR25,000 - 30,000

    Woven in a striking square format, this very rare carpet from West Anatolia has a composition comprising two wide rectangular compartments of equal size. They are each clearly demarcated by a surrounding green serrated band and framed by a thin white-and-brown stripe. Each compartment is dominated by a yellow “Crivelli” star placed at its centre, with octagons enclosing eight-pointed stars and three horizontal floral motifs distributed around them (there was probably a fourth such tulip-like motif in the lost part of the field at the bottom left). – The term "Crivelli“ star is used to describe a striking and distinctive motif which is seen in rugs depicted by the Venetian painter Carlo Crivelli (ca. 1435 – 1495), for example in the “Annunciation” (1486, now in the National Gallery, London). This eight-pointed star is strictly geometrical in drawing. Its mirror-image interior design is composed of compartments in varying shapes and colours that radiate out from around the centre. The stars of this carpet are drawn in bold yellow lines, so their grid-like construction is particularly evident. The "Crivelli” star could also be described as an interlaced motif with a convoluted outer contour. In this item, the yellow outer border featuring a vine in the style of Ushak rugs is wider than the two inner borders. (DM)

    Detailed discussion and art historical appraisal by MF in OS 2, no. 37


    Mounted on canvas

    Exhibited: Hamburg Deichtorhallen 1993; Stuttgart, Linden-Museum 1993


    Published:
    OS 1, no. 163 *** OS 2, no. 37