VOK COLLECTION, Selection II
Auction A 88 on Saturday, 12th March 2016
|0.776 GBP||1 Euro|
|1.109 USD||1 Euro|
VOK Collection, Caucasus – Persia 47
- Western Central Persia, Chahar Mahal region
- 260 x 119 cm
- 1st quarter 20th century
Woven in the double weft interlocking technique to avoid slits, this rather coarse kilim is a product of one of the Bakhtiari tribal groups in the Chahar Mahal region. Destined for home use, it is solid in structure to suit its purpose. The abstract design of vertical serrated bands – irregular in shape and slightly curved – appears dynamic and full of energy. The visual effect of this kilim is thus particularly expressive. Three white bands woven in cotton add structure and create a sense of calm in the seemingly chaotic and aggressive design. Blue serrated bands constitute the lateral borders. The end finishes consist of narrow horizontal stripes, some of them with small brocaded motifs. – Good condition, only slight signs of age.
AMPE, PATRICK & RIE, Textile Art. A personal choice (Kailash Gallery). Antwerp 1994, no. 24 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim and other Flatweaves. (Text by Hamid Sadighi) Munich 1996, no. 47
VOK Collection, Anatolia 42
- North West Anatolia
- 249 x 126 cm
- 2nd half 19th century
According to Hirsch, this kilim was woven in the Yerli village of Avunya located in north western Turkey between Canakkale and Balikesir. Kilims are still woven in the village today, although they now show designs that appear rigid and mechanical compared to this rare antique Vok example. – The design of the white-ground field consists of five rectangles of varying sizes separated by wide horizontal bands. The composition is dominated by a large square placed at the centre of the field. It is almost completely filled by a red-ground diamond decorated with small cruciform devices, arranged concentrically to echo the diamond shape. The same design – concentric diamonds composed of cruciform devices – continues outside the central motif in waves, filling the ground. The two horizontal rectangular compartments above and below, only half the size of the central square, present analogous designs in which the red diamond appears as a halved form. Two narrow horizontal panels, each with a comb motif at its centre, constitute the end finishes. The minimalist and abstract style of the designs, the restrained palette and wide lateral borders of parmakli devices are characteristic features of this kilim group. Several of the pink dividing stripes and details in the cruciform motifs are woven in silk yarn. – Damage to the sides and small holes all around. Signs of age and wear. Mounted onto canvas.
HULL, ALASTAIR & LUCZYC-WYHOWSKA, JOSE, Kilim. The Complete Guide. London 1993, no. 261
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 42
VOK Collection, Anatolia 50
- Central Anatolia
- 280 x 125 cm
- 18th century
According to Hirsch, this medium-sized, single-panel borderless kilim was woven in a village in the surroundings of Haymana, a town situated ca. 70 kilometres south of Ankara. A striking solitary design – a large brown diamond with deeply incised lateral “parmakli” outlines enclosing two nested feathered diamonds in red and dark blue – lies at the centre of an empty white field. The diamond is one of the oldest symbols known to mankind. It was the most important fertility symbol among the early cultures of Near East. The sides of the field are decorated with pointed triangles in diverse colours. This serrated band carries further symbolic meaning, constituting a barrier against external dangers to close off the kilim’s interior and define it as a protected area. The points have been inserted into a red band at both ends. - Herrmann, who first published the kilim in 1990, points out in his discussion that the composition of a central motif placed on a plain undecorated field is highly atypical of Anatolian kilims. Although comparable design concepts are encountered in Qashqa’i kilims from Fars and Shahsavan weavings from Azerbaijan, they do not occur in Anatolia. This example is thus particularly rare. Hirsch believes that the kilim was used as an eating cloth (sofreh) on festive occasions. – Slight signs of age and wear, several stains. Both ends somewhat damaged, original side finishes. Backed with canvas along the sides all around.
HERRMANN, EBERHART, Asiatische Teppich- und Textilkunst 2. Munich 1990, no. 18 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 50
VOK Collection, Suzani 1, 41
- Central Asia, South West Uzbekistan
- 243 x 222 cm
- early 19th century
Published by Black & Loveless as early as 1981, this suzani is considered one of the most beautiful and earliest examples from Samarkand by connoisseurs. The suzani is composed of six panels and embroidered in the basma filling stitch with yurma outlines. The outer panels of the foundation are considerably wider than the inner ones in a conscious effort to avoid misalignment in the design of the lateral main borders. The large scale of the motifs and the spacious composition are typical features of the local style, as are the large undecorated sections of the ground and the palette, in this case sixteen diverse and intense, luminous shades including golden yellow, pink, orange, aubergine as well as several blues and greens. The comparatively small field is surrounded by a very wide main border in which eight huge circular blossoms are flanked by wide sweeping sickle leaves. In the field, a central circular blossom is encircled by a two-tone vine decorated with leaves, and four palmettes are aligned diagonally towards the corners. This "four and one" design is known as "chahar cheragh" (four-armed candle holder) in Uzbekistan and considered a powerful protective symbol. It is frequently encountered in Shakhrisyabz suzanis. Six small circular blossoms, each composed of six radial colour segments, complete the design. Samarkand embroideries are easily identified by the distinctive style of their secondary borders – an elongated wavy vine surrounding the field, with fan-shaped blossoms attached to it in an in-and-out rhythm. Minor details are embroidered in vermilion wool. The design of the border overlaps the red boundary lines in several places, a feature indicating creative freedom which is only seen in very old Samarkand suzanis. – Slight signs of age and wear, good overall condition. Backed with canvas.
BLACK, DAVID & LOVELESS, CLIVE, Embroidered Flowers From Thrace To Tartary. London 1981, no. 25 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Suzani. A Textile Art from Central Asia. (Text by Jakob Taube) Munich 1994, no. 41
VOK Collection, Suzani 2, 63
- Central Asia, South West Uzbekistan
- 242 x 180 cm
- 1st half 19th century
A huge circular blossom constitutes the unmistakable centre of the composition. It encloses a smaller blossom with nine tapered, knife-shaped blue botehs radially arranged around it. Six large blossoms with scalloped outlines orbit the central motif like satellites. A second design element of smaller blossoms densely covers the ground. The coherent character of the composition derives from the bold green leaf vines weaving through or winding around all the designs. The overall impression is one of abundantly growing plants. The main border displays the same designs as the field, while the two minor borders contain different vines decorated with leaves and blossoms. Various design sections are embroidered in red wool yarn. According to recent insights, this precious material was imported from India. – The most striking feature of this six-panel suzani embroidered in the chain stitch technique is the small black spherical fruit immediately surrounding all the larger blossoms like design chains. The shape of the motifs is reminiscent of grapes, which is why these unmistakable suzanis are known as "the black dot group" among English-speaking connoisseurs. Very few examples have come to light so far. The suzani sold as lot 65 in the Vok I sale is one, and further examples are listed below. A remarkable fact is that all the known examples differ in composition. Their common features are the black spheres and a specific colour scheme including a higher proportion of green than is usual in suzanis. Lot 65 was described by us as a Karabag suzani. We probably ventured too far in pin-pointing the provenance so precisely and are now using quotation marks, but we do wish to keep the term as a working name. Experts agree that these suzanis were made in the region between Bokhara, Karshi and Shakhrisyabz. – Several small holes, good overall condition. Backed with canvas.
TSCHEPELEWEZKAJA, G.L. & SUCHAREWA, O.A., Susani Usbekistans. Hamburg 1991, no. 13, p. 103 *** SOTHEBY's New York, auction of 11th December 1991, # 75 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Suzani. A Textile Art from Central Asia. (Text by Jakob Taube) Munich 1994, no. 16 *** HALI 111, London 2000. P. 95 (Loveless advertisement) *** GRUBE, ERNST J., Keshte. Central Asian Embroideries. The Marshall and Marilyn R. Wolf Collection. New York 2003, no. 5
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Suzani 2. A Textile Art from Central Asia. (Text by Jakob Taube) Munich 2006, no. 63
VOK Collection, Suzani 1, 43
- Central Asia, South West Uzbekistan
- 252 x 180 cm
- early 19th century
This is a striking example among the large medallion suzanis on account of its diverging composition. The usual, distinct separation of the field and border section has been abandoned in favour of a dynamic design that powerfully extends across the whole of the field. At its centre, a circular blossom enclosing a star design appears to rotate. It is encircled by two of the zoomorphic forms so characteristic of all large medallion suzanis; resembling salamanders or centipedes, they are always fully embroidered. Several blossoms in diverse shapes and sizes, drawn in side view, are associated with the central motif and framed by an inconspicuous hexagonal border. Six huge blossoms surrounded by golden spirals and elongated curvilinear “salamanders“ dominate the overall picture. – Michael Franses’ monograph, "The Great Embroideries of Bukhara", constitutes an inventory of the 54 large medallion suzanis known in 2000 and undertakes a division into design groups. The Vok suzani no. 43 belongs to the rare UE group, represented by just three examples, and is catalogued as UE1. In the first Suzani publication, Taube neither assigned it to the large medallion group nor recognised its provenance in the surroundings of Bokhara, despite the fact that it meets all the relevant criteria. Why? The reason can be found in his essay, “Reflections on ‘Large-Medallion’ Suzani“ (Suzani II, pp. 75 – 80). Here, the author identifies one of the medallion suzanis (Vok suzani I, no. 48, lot 134 in this sale) as the oldest and thus most authentic example which supposedly still fully reflects a nomadic tradition. Based on a formula devised by himself, he goes on to describe the development of the designs as a continuous departure from the original tribal character and thus as a process of progressive alienation resulting in degeneration; on the other hand, he interprets it as the individual’s liberation from the constraints of tribal tradition. The Vok no. 43 suzani is not even mentioned in Taube’s essay. It probably did not conform to his line of reasoning. – Western concepts of a linear style development can only be projected onto oriental textiles up to a point. In fact, a comparison of LM suzanis shows that different design concepts co-existed equally. The substantial differences between them contradict the hypothesis that they all derive from a single original type. Rather we must assume parallel developments. Hans Belting, a well-known art critic, once stated, “der Gänsemarsch der Stile hat nicht stattgefunden (styles did not march in single file)“. Although he was referring to European art, his statement equally applies to works from oriental cultures. Different design concepts existing in parallel and mutual influences were a reality especially in Uzbek textiles, and creative freedom played a major role as well. – Several restored areas, now in very good condition.
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Suzani. A Textile Art from Central Asia. (Text by Jakob Taube) Munich 1994, no. 43 *** FRANSES, MICHAEL, The Great Embroideries of Bukhara. London 2000, cat. no. UE1, pp. 90 and 91
VOK Collection, Caucasus – Persia 106
- South West Persia, Fars province
- 304 x 146 cm
- 2nd half 19th century
Simply conceived, the design of this antique Luri kilim consists of huge diamonds and large empty colour sections – a bold composition of geometric forms in harmonious colours that combine into a dramatic overall expression. Two midnight blue diamonds with stepped outlines lie on the central axis of the white field. They are framed by six larger offset diamonds in various colour combinations. Although only parts of them are actually visible, they are conceived as a complete design that is cut and limited by the narrow border of reciprocal stepped forms. The field thus only shows a section of an endless design. – The nomadic weaver managed the feat of combining dynamic and restful elements in a happy symbiosis. Although the striking diagonal outlines of the motifs move in different directions, emphasising the expanding and fluid nature of the design, the interlocking colours of the six diamonds placed at the sides make for a cohesive composition. A small red octagon filled with a white star draws the eye to the centre of the lower blue diamond. A boteh and two tiny stepped polygons are positioned on the central axis of the upper blue diamond. All the other spaces have been left plain, so there is nothing to distract from the interaction of form and colour. This is a masterpiece of abstract design with a strong appeal to connoisseurs of modern western art. – Minimal signs of age and wear, small stains.
HERRMANN, EBERHART, Seltene Orientteppiche VII. Munich 1985, no. 63 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim and other Flatweaves. (Text by Hamid Sadighi) Munich 1996, no. 106
HERRMANN, EBERHART, Seltene Orientteppiche VII. München 1985, Nr. 63 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 106 *** TANAVOLI, PARVIZ, Persian Flatweaves. Woodbridge 2002, Tf. 141
VOK Collection, Anatolia 51
- Central Anatolia, Cappadocia
- 408 x 155 cm
- mid 19th century or earlier
Particularly fine in weave and meticulously executed, this kilim is probably an urban piece. Hirsch assumes a provenance in the surroundings of the old Cappadocian town of Nigde. The two primary designs – large nested diamonds with parmakli outlines and a high proportion of brilliant white cotton – oppose each other at the top and bottom of the field, separated by a wide and almost open space: a rare and bold compositional concept. They appear to float on the deep blue ground like islands. The secondary design of small halved diamonds arranged in widely spaced horizontal rows seems to simply float along. In contrast, the lateral borders consist of sharp red points. Sinuous halved diamonds and wavy design bands adorn the elems. They, too, contain a strikingly high proportion of cotton. – One major and several minor stains, very good overall condition.
HERRMANN, EBERHART, Asiatische Teppich- und Textilkunst 1. Munich 1989, no. 2 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 51
VOK Collection, Anatolia 35
- Central Anatolia
- 407 x 150 cm
- 1st half 19th century
Central Anatolian kilims displaying designs of oversized, nested serrated diamonds usually come from the Konya-Karapinar region, but they were also woven in the surroundings of Mut further to the south. The predominant principle of their composition is a division into separate field sections which contain the primary designs as solitary motifs. Most of the surviving examples display a white ground, and the presence of lateral borders is an exception. According to Hirsch, this example in gorgeous colours was discovered in the village of Cumurlugiret south west of Konya. Four sets of four huge nested serrated diamonds fill their respective sections of the field, which differ in ground colour (white, red, golden yellow, aubergine) to create contrasts of varying intensity. The wide horizontal dividing stripes contain bands of undulating forms that may be interpreted as abstract birds. The four halved parmakli motifs protruding laterally into each field section absorb the explosive energy of the primary designs. In this kilim, the massive impact of the motifs and brilliant colours create a magical effect that will not elude a sensitive viewer. It is considered a masterpiece of Anatolian textile art. According to Hirsch, the kilim was made for a special occasion. – Slight signs of age and wear, several rewoven sections. Both end finishes are somewhat reduced; remnants of an additional border survive at the top. The ends and sides are backed with canvas.
BALPINAR, BELKIS & HIRSCH, UDO, Flachgewebe des Vakiflar-Museums Istanbul. Wesel 1982, no. 6 *** FRAUENKNECHT, BERTRAM, Frühe türkische Tapisserien. Nuremberg 1984, no. 33 *** BRÜGGEMANN, WERNER, Yayla. Form und Farbe in türkischer Textilkunst. Frankfurt 1993, no. 16 *** KELIM-CONNECTION AACHEN (publ.), Kultkelim. Ausgewählte anatolische Flachgewebe. Aachen 1999, pl. 14 *** KELIM-CONNECTION AACHEN (publ.), Kelim: Textile Kunst aus Anatolien. Aachen 2002, pls. 48 and 49 *** PETSOPOULOS, YANNI, 100 Kelims. Meisterwerke aus Anatolien. Munich 1991, no. 41
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims and other Flatweaves from Anatolia. (Text by Udo Hirsch) Munich 1997, no. 35
VOK Collection, Caucasus – Persia 57
- North West Persia, Azerbaijan
- 345 x 153 cm
- dated 1308 AH = 1890 AD
Five powerful nested diamonds, each composed of five elements with boldly stepped outlines, are aligned in succession along the central axis of a camel field abrashed in several places. In the absence of any additional designs they appear to drift in the empty space. The border, a simple brown surrounding band, is linked to the field by a serrated outline. Coarsely woven, firm and solid in structure, this kilim is a typical floor rug by the Shahsavan nomads of North West Persia. It was probably made in the region between Mianeh, Saveh and Hashtrud. A brocaded date appears three times at the upper end. – Good condition.
POHL-SCHILLINGS, HANS, Persische Flachgewebe. Bilder aus Iran. Cologne 1994, no. 32 *** TANAVOLI, PARVIZ, Persian Flatweaves. Woodbridge 2002, pl. 14
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim and other Flatweaves. (Text by Hamid Sadighi) Munich 1996, no. 57