VOK COLLECTION, Selection III
Auction A 91 on Saturday, 25th March 2017
|0.867 GBP||1 Euro|
|1.081 USD||1 Euro|
VOK Collection: Caucasus – Persia 35
- Western Central Persia, Chahar Mahal region
- 457 x 157 cm
- Late 19th century
This long and coarsely woven single-panel kilim shows a strikingly graphic and expressive minimalist design in just two colours. Twelve wide, white horizontal panels are spaced evenly on an earth-brown ground abrashed in several tones, lying separately without touching the sides. Two fine brown horizontal lines at the top and bottom of each white panel are the only decorative elements. As regards their function, Sadighi writes: "Gilim with this pattern were hung on the fence which directed the goats into the milking-pen, with the stripes apparently representing a row of drovers ". – Slight signs of age and wear, several stains, original finishes all around.
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 35
VOK Collection: Suzani 4
- Central Asia, South West Uzbekistan
- 300 x 215 cm
- Ca. 1900 – 1925
The simply conceived field design consists of twelve very large disc-shaped blossoms arranged in linear rows, their circular centres accentuated by colour. The designs are embroidered tone-on-tone in several shades of red, purple and orange. Interpreted as moon discs in antique suzanis, this well-known design regularly appears in the embroideries of the northern groups made in Khojent, Dzhizak, Pskent and Tashkent. In traditional Pskent and Tashkent suzanis of the paliak (moon sky) design, the discs densely cover the whole of the ground in a hermetic surface design. In this item they are placed freely on the white ground, without any points of contact and at a distance from the sides of the field. The most extraordinary feature is their long coiling arms that appear like the tentacles of an octopus, creating a rotary movement in the circular motifs. The embroidery was probably made in Samarkand during the early 20th century. A photo in Chepelevetskaya (Tschepelewezkaja in the German edition) shows a comparable embroidery adorning the wall of a bridal couple’s room. – Signs of age and wear, foxing. Mounted onto canvas.
TSCHEPELEWEZKAJA, G.L. & SUCHAREWA, O.A., Susani Usbekistans. Ein Beitrag zur Technik, Ornamentik und Symbolik der usbekischen Seidenstickereien. Hamburg 1991, Abb. 4, S. 16 und Tf. 24, S. 114 *** KALTER, JOHANNES & PALALOI, MARGARETA, Usbekistan. Erben der Seidenstraße. Stuttgart 1995, Abb. 559
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Suzani. Eine textile Kunst aus Zentralasien. (Text: Jakob Taube) München 1994, Nr. 4
VOK Collection: Caucasus – Persia 78
- South Caucasus, Azerbaijan
- 277 x 150 cm
- Late 19th century
This large cover consists of two panels joined at the centre. It is woven in a particular technique described as balanced plain weave by Wertime; it leaves the warps visible, influencing the appearance of the colours. The ground colours of the vertical stripes are produced by red, beige, dark blue and green blocks of warps varying in size. Wefts of a different colour have been used to produce a geometric and often two-tone design of horizontal points, comb shapes and chevrons, appearing either in faint half tones or stronger full tones. The central vertical band of green warps constitutes the symmetrical axis of the mirror-image composition, consisting of two halves exactly identical in design. Narrow horizontal stripes separated by subtle brocaded seams create a sense of calm in the design. – This elaborate flatweaving technique is also encountered in the Fars region and in Shahsavan weavings from Azerbaijan. Similar to an example published by Wertime, we expect that CP 78 is from the southern Caucasus, probably one of the villages in the Karabagh region. However, a provenance in the Kazak region is also feasible as Sadighi writes that comparable pieces were found locally in the village of Tawus. – Original finishes, including the braided warps at both ends. Several minor rewoven sections, good overall condition.
WRIGHT, RICHARD & WERTIME, JOHN, Caucasian Carpets & Covers. The Weaving Culture. London 1995, Tf. XIX *** KIRDÖK, MUAMMER, Antike Teppiche, Kelims, Textilien. Katalog Frühjahr '95. Wien 1995, K1936, S. 76
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 78
VOK Collection: Anatolia 19
- Central Anatolia
- 132 x 110 cm
- Late 19th century
Small and nearly square in format, this flatweave represents a particular and highly memorable type which is well-documented in a number of examples published in specialist literature. The design in subdued colours has been embroidered in the brocading technique onto an ivory plainweave foundation. Five flat stepped arches run horizontally across the entire width of the field, embedded into a basic design of tiny S-forms. The composition is strictly symmetrical, and the stepped arches add an ascending movement to the design. Each arch supports three trees stylised to Y-forms. The cypress trees seen in other examples of the group do not occur in A 19. The two comparatively wide additional design stripes (elems) constitute a further difference; they display a serrated band with suspended amulets which are absent in comparative pieces. This leads us to assume that A 19 was woven in a different Yerli village from the kilims cited below, which are probably all from Keçimuhsine. Hirsch mentions a village south of Sivrihisar as the provenance of A 19, reporting that such kilims were used as curtains to cover wall niches in which tools and household goods were kept. – Good condition, patinated with age.
BALPINAR, BELKIS & HIRSCH, UDO, Flachgewebe des Vakiflar-Museums Istanbul. Wesel 1982, Tf. 105 *** FRAUENKNECHT, BERTRAM & FRANTZ, KLAUS, Anatolische Gebetskelims. Nürnberg 1978, Abb. 20 ** BALPINAR ACAR, BELKIS, Kilim-Cicim-Zili-Sumak. Türkische Flachgewebe. Istanbul 1983, Abb. 16 *** ESKENAZI, JOHN J.(Hrsg.), Kilim. Mailand 1980, Nr. 28 *** HULL, ALASTAIR & LUCZYC-WYHOWSKA, JOSE, Kilim. The Complete Guide. London 1993, Nr. 324
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims und andere Flachgewebe aus Anatolien. (Text: Udo Hirsch) München 1997, Nr. 19
VOK Collection: Caucasus – Persia 54
- North Persia
- 261 x 155 cm
- Second half 19th century
This single-panel kilim – a coarse and heavy weaving on a dark brown wool warp – is from one of the many villages of Khalajestan, a region situated some 50 kilometres south of the city of Saveh. Sadighi writes that Karim Khan, the first ruler of the Zand dynasty, settled the Turkic Khalaj nomads there ca. 1790, and that subsequently they became sedentary. – Khalaj kilims are easily identified by their dark colours and distinctive diamonds with deeply incised, sharply serrated outlines, a design reminiscent of the parmakli motifs of Afyon in West Anatolia. The diamonds usually form a dense repeat, but the Vok kilim CP 54 shows a different composition: its primary design consists of fifteen large diamonds placed in rows without interlocking. The field ground is divided into five horizontal panels in diverse colours, with three diamonds placed side by side in each band. The field is divided into a central section and two elems by two white-ground horizontal bands containing small rhomboids, accompanied by bands brocaded in flowers. A rare and visually outstanding example. – Well preserved, original finishes all around.
AMPE, PATRICK & RIE, Textile Art. A personal choice (Kailash Gallery). Antwerpen 1994, Nr. 34 *** POHL-SCHILLINGS, HANS, Persische Flachgewebe. Köln 1994, Nr. 45 *** HULL, ALASTAIR & LUCZYC-WYHOWSKA, JOSE, Kilim. The Complete Guide. London 1993, Abb. 389 *** GALERIE NEIRIZ (Hrsg.), Kelims der Nomaden und Bauern Persiens. Berlin 1990, Abb. 24 *** PETSOPOULOS, YANNI, Der Kelim. Ein Handbuch. München 1980, Nr. 373 *** TANAVOLI, PARVIZ, Persian Flatweaves. Woodbridge 2002, Tfn. 86 und 87 *** SADIGHI NEIRIZ, HAMID & HAWKES, KARIN, Kelims und andere Flachgewebe aus der Sammlung Neiriz. Calbe o. J. (2014), Nrn. 73 - 79
HALI 57, London 1991, S. 171 *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 54 *** SADIGHI NEIRIZ, HAMID & HAWKES, KARIN, Kelims und andere Flachgewebe aus der Sammlung Neiriz. Calbe o. J. (2014), Nr. 72
VOK Collection: Caucasus – Persia 76
- South West Persia, Fars province
- 276 x 154 cm
- Mid 19th century
Simple in appearance only at a first glance, this two-panel flatweave with warps in different colours was made by Qashqa’i nomads of the Darreh Shuri tribe. It is plainwoven in a specific technique in which the visible warps contribute to the effect of the colours, described as "balanced twill weave" by Tanavoli. The plain, light brown central section of camel wool is framed on both sides by a wide surround of eleven narrow vertical stripes in diverse colours decorated with reciprocal halved stepped polygons; the motifs and colours are repeated in mirror image on the opposite side. The ground colours of the stripes – dark and mid blue, white, yellow, dark brown, camel brown, green and red – correspond to those of the respective warps. Due to the weaving technique using a pattern warp and pattern weft, some of the motifs show two tones or faint half tones, appearing hazy, while others display strong full tones when the warp and weft are the same colour. The two-tone polygon halves either show a herringbone design or are covered in a delicate diamond lattice, similar to the entire central section where the colour scheme is tone-on-tone. The contrast between the open centre and the densely patterned sides is particularly appealing. – Tanavoli describes this type as a “mowj”, based on the Persian word for wave which in this case defines the characteristic weaving technique and has become eponymous. “Jajim” was the common term previously used in publications. Qashqa’i nomads used these textiles as covers for their beds. – Good condition, the decorative braids have been preserved at one end.
TANAVOLI, PARVIZ, Persian Flatweaves. Woodbridge 2002, Tf. 215 *** SADIGHI NEIRIZ, HAMID & HAWKES, KARIN, Kelims und andere Flachgewebe aus der Sammlung Neiriz. Calbe o. J. (2014), Nr. 190 *** WILLBORG, PETER, & ALBERTSON, INGEMAR, Woven Magic. A Book About Kilims. Stockholm 1992, Nr. 80
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 76
VOK Collection: Caucasus – Persia 74
- South West Persia, Fars province
- 279 x 160 cm
- Second half 19th century
The Iranian nomad tribes produced many flatwoven covers in vertical stripe designs for home use, employing them for different purposes. They began by weaving very long strips, usually in a warp-faced plainweave (see photo in Housego) which leaves the polychrome warps visible on the face, determining the ground colour of the stripes. The stripes were then cut into sections of equal length and stitched together. While most of the published jajims are weavings by the Shahsavan tribes of Azerbaijan, this very rare cover is a Kashkuli weaving by the Qashqa’i of Fars province. According to Sadighi, it used to belong to Nasir Khan, the last Qashqa’i Il-Khan (Great Khan). – Composed of five panels, the jajim shows a design of amulets, diamonds, various hook forms and hooked vines arranged in bands. The designs and style strongly resemble the animal pack bands (malband) used by nomads. Four-legged animals have been incorporated into the design in the central band, and further animals are seen in one of the corners. – Good condition, one major stain at the lower end.
SADIGHI NEIRIZ, HAMID & HAWKES, KARIN, Kelims und andere Flachgewebe aus der Sammlung Neiriz. Calbe o. J. (2014), Nr. 170 *** HOUSEGO, JENNY, Tribal Rugs. An introduction to the Weavings of the tribes of Iran. London 1978, Tf. 10 *** OPIE, JAMES, Tribal Rugs. Nomadic and Village Weavings from the Near East and Central Asia. Portland 1992, Abb. 10.21
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 74
VOK Collection: Caucasus - Persia 6
- South West Caucasus
- 272 x 208 cm
- Second half 19th century
This large Caucasian kilim displaying a horizontal stripe design without vertical borders was woven in a single piece. Simple in concept, its design consists of five wide horizontal panels showing large, geometric basic designs. Each of the two brick-red bands contains four hexagons decorated with sprawling double hooks, also known as "spider güls". Their centres are accentuated by a stepped diamond. The three white-ground bands enclose huge nested diamonds with bold parmakli outlines and smaller, analogous halved designs inserted between them. The colour contrast between the motifs and the ground sets off the reciprocal effects inherent in the design in a particularly striking way, producing alternative forms. The main bands are separated by narrower bands composed of two undecorated stripes in a single colour, a deep aubergine, and a central stripe with an undulating line. – Literature provides contradictory information on the provenance of these striped kilims. They are usually described as Shahsavan weavings, but also as Azeri kilims from the Karabagh region. It is now generally accepted that the kilims were woven in villages of the Kazak region, either by Armenians or another population group living there, possibly Azeri. – Major rewoven sections at the long sides, original end finishes.
VOLKMANN, MARTIN (Hrsg.), Alte Orientteppiche. Ausgewählte Stücke deutscher Privatsammlungen. München 1985, Nr. 44 *** WILLBORG, PETER, & ALBERTSON, INGEMAR, Woven Magic. A Book About Kilims. Stockholm 1992, Nr. 60 *** WRIGHT, RICHARD & WERTIME, JOHN, Caucasian Carpets & Covers. The Weaving Culture. London 1995, Tf. XLII *** RIPPON BOSWELL, Auktion 79, 26. November 2011, Lot 243
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 6
VOK Collection: Anatolia 54
- West Anatolia, Manisa province
- 226 x 165 cm
- Mid 19th century
Composed of two panels and woven on a white cotton warp, this kilim shows a strikingly idiosyncratic design. It is a masterpiece of abstract graphic effect. The centre of the field is a wide empty space into which eighteen blue bars, their ends notched in a triangular shape, protrude from both sides. They appear like the keys of a piano. The bars are outlined in fine white and red lines. Instead of a border, the sides are framed by an inconspicuous serrated design, and both ends terminate in a blue band. – According to Hirsch, the kilim was woven by Yürüks of the Ivrinde tribe in the province of Manisa. – Slight signs of age and wear, minor rewoven sections, several stains.
VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Anatolia. Kilims und andere Flachgewebe aus Anatolien. (Text: Udo Hirsch) München 1997, Nr. 54
VOK Collection: Caucasus – Persia 36
- North West Persia, Azerbaijan, Karadagh region
- 360 x 95 cm jede Bahn
- Late 19th century
Two long kilim panels densely woven in a design of wide aubergine, white and red horizontal stripes on a mottled brown-and-white wool warp. Clusters of either four or five thin dividing stripes are interspersed between them. Small apotropaic symbols have been randomly brocaded into the wide panels. It is uncertain whether these two kilims, almost identical but discovered in different places and at different times, ever formed a whole and were joined at the centre. However, the fact that the horizontal stripe design does not quite fit horizontally and increasingly diverges along the length of the rug is not proof to the contrary. This kind of misalignment is nothing unusual in two-panel kilims, for instance those from Anatolia. – A closely related kilim with white stripes woven in cotton was published by Tanavoli and attributed to the Hamamlu, who probably belong to the Shahsavan tribal confederation. They live in an eponymous village located some 100 kilometres north east of Tabriz in the foothills of the Karadagh mountains and originally belonged to the Moghan Shahsavan. - Slight signs of age and wear, several small stains, original finishes all around.
TANAVOLI, PARVIZ, Persian Flatweaves. Woodbridge 2002, Tf. 8
GALERIE NEIRIZ (Hrsg.), Kelims der Nomaden und Bauern Persiens. Berlin 1990, Abb. 8 (eine Hälfte) *** VOK, IGNAZIO, Vok Collection. Caucasus-Persia. Gilim und andere Flachgewebe. (Text: Hamid Sadighi) München 1996, Nr. 36